FIZIKA 9 FIZ9_04_01_ Poglavje: ELEKTRIKA. *Oznaka F9_01_01_00_01 številka strani in zaporedna številka naloge v preizkusu

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1 FIZIKA 9 *Oznaka F9_01_01_00_01 številka strani in zaporedna številka naloge v preizkusu 4. Poglavje: ELEKTRIKA FIZ9_04_01_01 F9_04_01_01_01 raznovrstnim; istovrstnim F9_04_01_01_02 nevtralno; negativno naelektreno; pozitivno naelektreno F9_04_01_01_03 na daljavo; naelektrenimi F9_04_01_01_04 A; B F9_04_01_01_05 nikamor F9_04_01_01_06 A

2 FIZ9_04_01_02 F9_04_01_02_01 pozitivno; negativno; pozitivno; negativno pozitivno; pozitivno; ni naelektren; negativno; negativno F9_04_01_02_02 influenca F9_04_01_02_03 elektroni F9_04_01_02_04 dodamo; naelektreno; elektrone; naelektreno F9_04_01_02_05 ohranitvi električnega naboja F9_04_01_02_06

3 FIZ9_04_01_03 F9_04_01_03_01 ampersekunda; elektroskop F9_04_01_03_02 e = 2 e 0 = 2 1, As = 3, As F9_04_01_03_03 Negativni naboj steče s elektroskopa na palico. F9_04_01_03_04 naboj obeh je po velikosti enak F9_04_01_03_05 kvark F9_04_01_03_06 N = m/m = 0,002 kg / (9, kg) = 2, e = 3 N e 0 = 3 2, , As = 10, As = 10,3 kas F9_04_01_03_07 Najmanjši naboj v naravi je osnovni naboj. Električni naboj telesa je vedno večkratnik osnovnega naboja. F9_04_01_03_08 ker se enaki naboji v kovinski palici in kazalcu med seboj odbijajo

4 FIZ9_04_02_00 F9_04_02_00_01 izolatorji F9_04_02_00_02 izolator: papir, suh les, guma, plastika, destilirana voda, keramika prevodnik: slana voda, grafit, srebro, baker F9_04_02_00_03 izolator; prevodnik; germanij F9_04_02_00_04 izolatorji F9_04_02_00_05 generator, baterija F9_04_02_00_06 tok; elektroni; električni tok; napetost F9_04_02_00_07 enosmerni tok; izmenični tok

5 FIZ9_04_02_01 F9_04_02_01_01 F9_04_02_01_02 elektroni F9_04_02_01_03 F9_04_02_01_04 kratki stik F9_04_02_01_05 varovalke

6 FIZ9_04_02_02 F9_04_02_02_01 svetlobni; magnetni; kemijski; toplotni F9_04_02_02_02 negativen; pozitiven; strelo FIZ9_04_02_03 F9_04_02_03_01 ampermeter; zaporedno F9_04_02_03_02 Ampermeter v obeh primerih pokaže enak električni tok. F9_04_02_03_03 F9_04_02_03_04 Tok je enak kot je bil pred žarnico. F9_04_02_03_ ma F9_04_02_03_06 Ni pomembno, ali je vezan pred ali za porabnikom.

7 FIZ9_04_03_00 F9_04_03_00_01 električna napetost; električni tok; električni krog F9_04_03_00_02 F9_04_03_00_03 F9_04_03_00_04 večja od F9_04_03_00_05 24 V F9_04_03_00_06 močneje

8 FIZ9_04_03_01 F9_04_03_01_01 enosmerni tok F9_04_03_01_ V 0-20 V 0-20 V 0-20 V 0-20 V V F9_04_03_01_03 izmenična; enosmerna; enosmerno

9 FIZ9_04_04_00 F9_04_04_00_01 R = U/I = 6 V / 0,4 A = 15 Ω F9_04_04_00_02 U = R I = Ω 0,01 A = 1000 V F9_04_04_00_03 R = U/I = 4 V / 0,04 A = 100 Ω F9_04_04_00_04 I = U/R = 100 V / 500 Ω = 0,2 A = 200 ma F9_04_04_00_05 ne drži F9_04_04_00_06 R = (R 1 / 1 m) d = (0,54 Ω / 1 m) 0,02 m = 0,0108 Ω U = R I = 0,0108 Ω 25 A = 0,27 V F9_04_04_00_07 R = (R 1 / 1 m) d = (0,54 Ω / 1 m) 6 m = 3,24 Ω I = U/R = 9 V / 3,24 Ω = 2,78 A = 2,8 A kratki stik F9_04_04_00_08 R 1 = U/I = 9 V / 0,2 A = 45 Ω R 2 = R 1-30 Ω = 45 Ω - 30 Ω = 15 Ω I = U/R = 9 V / 15 Ω = 0,6 A F9_04_04_00_09 U = R I = 150 Ω 0,02 A = 3 V F9_04_04_00_10 R = U/I = 3 V / 0,005 A = 600 Ω F9_04_04_00_11 U = R I = 120 Ω 0,8 A = 96 V

10 FIZ9_04_05_01 F9_04_05_01_01 I 1 = I 2 = I 3 = I F9_04_05_01_02 R = R 1 + R 2 + R 3 = 400 Ω Ω Ω = 1000 Ω I = U/R = 20 V / 1000 Ω = 0,02 A = 20 ma U 1 = R 1 I = 400 Ω 0,02 A = 8 V F9_04_05_01_03 N = U/U 1 = 230 V / 6 V = 38,333 = 38 (mora biti celo število) R 1 = U/I = 6 V / 0,4 A = 15 Ω R = R 1 + R 2 + = 38 R 1 = Ω = 570 Ω F9_04_05_01_04 R = U/I = 230 V / 0,1 A = 2300 Ω R 1 = R/N = 2300 Ω / 20 = 115 Ω F9_04_05_01_05 se bo zmanjšal električni tok. F9_04_05_01_06 R = R 1 + R 2 + R 3 = 125 Ω Ω Ω = 680 Ω

11 FIZ9_04_05_02 F9_04_05_02_01 zaporedna; vzporedna; kombinacija; zaporedna; vzporedna F9_04_05_02_02 20 V I 1 = U/R = 20 V / 200 Ω = 0,1 A = 100 ma I = 2 I 1 = 200 ma F9_04_05_02_03 F9_04_05_02_04 50 V F9_04_05_02_05 I 2 = U/R 2 = 24 V / 200 Ω = 0,12 A F9_04_05_02_06 Več toka gre skozi upornik z manjšo upornostjo. U = R I = 50 Ω 0,5 A = 25 V Spodnja pri 25 V. F9_04_05_02_07 Vzporedna vezava. I = I strela - I max = A - 5 A = 9995 A U žarnica = U upornik R žarnica I žarnica = R upornik I upornik R upornik = R žarnica I žarnica / I upornik = 500 Ω 5 A / 9995 A = 0,25 Ω

12 F9_04_05_02_08 Upor vzporedne vezave je najmanjši, kadar sta vzporedna upora največja. R 1 = R 2 = 0,2 Ω R 3 = 10 Ω F9_04_05_02_09 Tok skozi vzporedno vezane porabnike se porazdeli med veje. 900 Ω F9_04_05_02_10 1/R 12 = 1/R 1 + 1/R 2 = 1/1000 Ω + 1/3000 Ω = 4/3000 Ω R 12 = (3000/4) Ω = 750 Ω R 123 = R 12 + R 3 = 750 Ω Ω = 3750 Ω 1/R 1234 = 1/R /R 4 = 1/3750 Ω + 1/2500 Ω = 5/7500 Ω R 1234 = (7500/5) Ω = 1500 Ω 1/R 56 = 1/R 5 + 1/R 6 = 1/750 Ω + 1/1500 Ω = 3/1500 Ω R 56 = (1500/3) Ω = 500 Ω R = R R 56 = 1500 Ω Ω = 2000 Ω 1/R = 1/R /R 7 = 1/2000 Ω + 1/500 Ω = 5/2000 Ω R = (2000/5) Ω = 400 Ω R = R R 8 = 400 Ω Ω = 2000 Ω I = U/R = 220 V / 2000 Ω = 0,11 A

13 FIZ9_04_06_01 F9_04_06_01_01 A = U I t = 230 V 8,5 A (7200 s 4) = J = 56,3 MJ F9_04_06_01_02 A = U I t = 230 V 2 A (60 s 15) = J = 414 kj F9_04_06_01_03 1 kwh = 1000 Wh = 1000 W 3600 s = J F9_04_06_01_04 I = A/(U t) = J / (24 V 1800 s) = 0,3 A F9_04_06_01_05 Q = A = U I t = 80 V 7,5 A 2700 s = J = 1620 kj

14 FIZ9_04_06_02 F9_04_06_02_01 P = A/t = 1,0 kwh / 24 h = 41,67 W F9_04_06_02_02 P = U I = 230 V 7 A = 1610 W F9_04_06_02_03 A = P t = 90 W 24 h = 2160 Wh = 2,16 kwh F9_04_06_02_04 1/R 1 = 1/R žarnice + 1/R upornika = 1/8 Ω + 1/24 Ω = 4/24 Ω R 1 = 6 Ω R = 6 R 1 = 6 6 Ω = 36 Ω I = U/R = 24 V / 36 Ω = 0,67 A P = U I = 24 V 0,67 A = 16 W R = 3 R R upornik = 3 6 Ω Ω = 90 Ω I = U/R = 24 V / 90 Ω = 0,27 A P = U I = 24 V 0,27 A = 6,4 W F9_04_06_02_05 A 1 = P t = 8 W s = J = 302,4 kj A = 365 A 1 = J = J = 110,4 MJ znesek = 110,4 MJ 0,03 eur/mj = 3,3 eur A = 365 P t = 365 0,5 W s = J = 6,9 MJ znesek = 6,9 MJ 0,03 eur/mj = 0,2 eur privarčevani znesek = 3,3 eur - 0,2 eur = 3,1 eur F9_04_06_02_06 P = A/t = ( J) / 3600 s = 5555,56 W I = P/U = 5555,56 W / 230 V = 24,2 A R = U/I = 230 V / 24,2 A = 9,5 Ω F9_04_06_02_07 P = F v = 2 N 1,5 m/s = 3 W I = P / U = 3 W / 9 V = 0,3 A

15 R = U / I = 9 V / 0,3 A = 27 Ω F9_04_06_02_08 v = s/t = 500 m / 37 s = 13,5 m/s P = F v = N 13,5 m/s = ,6 W = 649 kw I = P/U = ,6 W / 240 V = 2703 A R = U/I = 240 V / 2703 A = 0,089 Ω = 89 mω F9_04_06_02_09 A = 36 A = 36 0,95 kwh = 34,2 kwh znesek = A cena = 34,2 kwh 0,052 eur/kwh = 1,78 eur F9_04_06_02_10 I = P/U = 66 W / 220 V = 0,3 A