>t V k kvf A \u D lue m

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1 >tv kkvfa \ud luem VD z] : TNPSC Group II > : ]B kv \ud VVD : EB_ ED >[ >V D VA\ >tv BV >kvbd z2 x>_w \ud x>[\ >V VVo VE ]^, o] VzA^, \V] > sv>v^^ \ud \[VzA^ gbk V >suz >BVVzD \Vk, \Vsz c>s D kl_ kkvfa \ud lue mbv_ \[V^ ks_ >BV ^m. D\[V zav VA\ kkvfa \ud lue mb V>m >s m. > >MV _m >MBV V > lue \B\V D\[V za > klkd \] kv, \ gd F]kV, su FD xbuelv ~ >_ Vm. *V_ ]B VA\ ][ > mkvzd >s m. m xukd V >z >BV FD \Vkz kw D t_v kbvzd. gb, kkvfa \ud lue m

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3 >]]uz [ >tw EB_ E[ ge >]]uz x[ VV 1937_ u >>o_ \V>x^ 214 _ 159 k[ V, ]Eltm geb ubm D V^ VV x>_kv (ZtB) >sbuv. 1937_ su k x >m. cv_ ]BVk c ]B>uz ]A >sm 1939D g V 10D V^ VV >\lv \k >s sbm. VD c VV_ u WlV_ 1939 kd x>_ 1946 _ k [ \VV]_ k ge um..vd 1946 o_ u >>o_ V ku um _ 30D V^.VD x>\vv. D l_v> y\vd Wku >B m 1947 \V 23DV^.VD >\lv \k >slw>m. >]]uz [ {\# V\Vt BV 1947 \V 23 [ V El[ {\# V\Vt BV ZtBV (x>\) >sbuv. [ x>_ 6, 1949 k k x>_kv >V>V. ]BV >]D >Vm AM> V Vl_ {\# V\Vt BV >\l_ >] ]V^ VVm.

4 VV k >] ]V VVB x>vkm >tw x>_kvkv. km gel_ 1949_ *[>V x am _ 6 x>_ 1950 k 26k.. z\vvt VV >\lv V ]V]o>m. >tw]_ ]B EB\A BV x>_ Vm>>_ 1952 \V_ um. \V k[ VmE (Commonweal Party) \ud cwv EB > V\Vt BVE gbvm g>[ 1952 _ 12_ VV x>\vv V [VD >] g] \VWD c>b\vm. g] [ w.vd g] \VW][ x>_ x>\v BVuV. 1953D g VV V k> z_s ]D D ] ]>m. >B m 1954 _ 13_ VV >\m >sb VV\V F>V. V\V VVz z 1954 _ 13 x>_ 1963 V 2D V^ k V\V >tw x>_kv DBVuV. 1956_ V\V >t \VaB ge \VaBVV. 1958_ >VaV o WB D Bum. 1955_ BA]_ k \]B c ]> mkv V\V. 1955_ skvb k\v k D Bum. 1956_ Bu [ z> VzBV^ (WBVB \V z> Km>_) D, WBVB\V z>b WBD F>m. 1958_ >tv VBm D Bum. 1961_ [ W ]> D Bum. m W c kd 30 V Wl>m k 24_ kl_ V WkV > Vzk]_ \V [> M >tv [ > D s>m. 1963_ V\V V EB mkuv ""V\V

5 ]D'' (K-Plan or Kamaraj Plan) V k>v. ] V\V >m x>_k >sb VV\V Fms E z ]DV. >kd V\Vz z >tw x>\ V >sbuk D.>kD gkv. k 1963 V 2 x>_ 1967 \V 6 k x>_kv >s k>v. k V El[ E >tw x>\vkv. km ge V]_ ] ]A VVD >twd xkmd sbm. ] ]A VVD >]]uz x[a ] ]A _k >EB c^b ]BVs_, \ V komd Vm[ V BD ] \VaB x ]Bm \ud 1922D g _ [ \VV]_ ]B Ak>uV 40 \B^ >V. >uz ] El[ g>d >m. [ \VV \[ \_ V\[ V g]\, * D ] ks_ km [ BV V. >V_ >t \[ x[ud \ud >t \Val[ ked z[d [ V. 1930_ [M]_ u B\BV> V_ ] ]A y\vd Wkum. 1936_ Vo VV >\ lv ]E cbw ^_ ]B Vkm \VaBV lus g >m. x>_ xbv ] ]A VVD 1937D g > m. VV >tw x>_kv >sz k> \V> V]B 1937 g 11 [ ^_ ] VB V\V D [> s>v. VVl[ > s ]m x>[ x>v \\ ^, Vk> V]>V[ \ud x>t Vk.g.. skv>[ gbv ]El_ x>_ ] ]A \VV ]. [l_ ]EB >.. [ _kd \ud ~.k.v BV >\l_ VV^ u,

6 > ]AB ]B VB V\VzD VB VV 1938 _ 21 [ klv. VV \ud ]z ]V \VW s_ ]A DBm D 3 ] ]A VV m. 1939_ ] ]A l_ u>v_ m FB >Vxm \ud V[ gbv Vko_ zdv> >. [ k^ \VaV ]BV^ [ w. VV >\lv V 1939D g >s sbm. > >Vm [ \VV g [ A 1940 kl_ > VB ] _sb s > s V\VV. >]]uz z ] ]A >]]uz z {..V\Vt BV >\lv [ \VV]_ * D ]B VB V\VBm. >V_ * D ] ]A VVD mkbm kd 2_ Vk >]BV V ]Vs wd ] ]A VV> >VBm \ 2_ V>B _s \ \V>kV [VD kza x>_ gvd kza k VD \VaBV gxd/ J[VD \VaBV ]DVB VD [ c>k >V \ 10D V^ >tw]_ ] ]A VV VVm. [ 1950, 18_ >m VB ] ] ubm x>_ ]Vs wxd, ]Vs x[u wxd m \Va VV> mk. x>u\v B lk^ ] m >VE azd VVD gd\vm. 1963D g _ 13[ ]B ge \Va > V>B c^m \ V_# V] >V_ F>V. ][ 1965 k 26D V^ ]BVs_ ] ge \Va BVzD. ] \Vaz m \VaBV gd B[ > D [ s m. D ] V> \z w> ] [ ] > ]m VVD um \V 6_ Vm >tw x>_kvv.

7 1968 k 23 _ gd, >t gb \Va >tw][ ge \VaBV zd [ \Va V^ ]> xd F>[ V \V u k> ] ]A VVD xkmm. ].x.. geb_ >twd 1944D g >> BVV_ ]Vs wd >Vusm. BVzD VmzD B >V[B m kv V\V, Vm ]Vs w]om m 1949D g D 17 [ ]Vs x[u wd [ B> ckvv. ].x.. [w D ]Vs x[u wd 1952D g u x>_ Vm >>o_ us_. ].x >>o_ 137 k[ x>[ xbv geb >m k 6D V^ El[ Vm BV V >t V[ x>\vv. km gel_ 1969D g k 14 [ [ \VWD "">tv '' B \VuD FBm k 23_ >tw E[ \Va V^BV "">t, gd"" [ \Va ]> s>v V k 3_ Vkm c >t \VV [l_ um. V x ]B B \BV> ]\ VmVA D 1968, k 20 x>_ xz k>m. 1969_ V >md Vk ab[ >uvo x>_kv BVuV k 10_ Q x.vw] >tw x>_kv >sbuv k 31[ ge D k k >sl_ >V>V V 14_ E VVV > D..g. ].x..som kb V ]Vs x[u w> ckvv. m ].x.s_ u tb kv >m. VW] >\lv ].x.. gel_ >t kev >MBV \D u >m. >t>vf kvm VV \V[\BD >D ^ ]B ""V K >'' [ V_ sm.

8 "" '' [ B_ B mz "">t V Vzkm wd'' B \VuD FB m h[ 13_ >tv kv\ >VaV WBVB ]B D Bum. 1970_ V \kv ]D >Vm. 1970_ c >twvvfe WkD Wkm. 1971_ V kwzd ]D >Vm. 1973_ k E^ V kwzd ]D mkd. 1974_ xuv \kv ]D mkd 1974_ x>ob >Vz]V kl k>uv "" x>o ] B>'' WsV VW]. 1975_ V> Ek \ud \ \kv ]D B_ >m V 2 [ \]B \VW lv c^ u gf FB {F u >\ ]] V.s. V\[V >\l_ z \m _ 20_ ""\VW BVE'' VD y\vd kl_ Wkum x>_ 1989 k.].x.. gebvd, ].x.. ] EBVD >m. 1989_ V xmt \ c>s ]D mk m. \^ [V z kv_ kvbd, z \Vu kvbd gbk ckv D 29_ z Vm\ kwzd D Bum V 11_ VV\[ cv > k. VVVt (kv) Elom V. >V_ ].x..s_ Vkm xbv um. 1996_ \V [m [ B \VuD FBm. 1999_ >tw]_ x>_ cwk > \ml_ mkm h[ 3D >] ""2 VFz 1 V E kwzd ]>'' mkv VW]. 2006_ >k V\V > VV 15 ""_s

9 ke VV'' s m kd 11_ ""kl_v Qz W]>s kwzd ]D'' mkd k 15 [ k kv A kwzd ]D mkm. >tw]_ VlB_ \ud \mk _ \Vk V Ow >k m Fk>uV _ V _ w x[v^ mk> i[ >\l_ z \m. zs[ m >tw]_ Ow > m FBm k 1 x>_ >tv_ \]A k (VAT) \Kz k>m D_ k k V \mk ] ]D ""108'' gdm. ^_ D ko> x mk>uv >tv ^^ (D koa x m>_) D 2009D g Bum \V 13_ A]B \[ kvd ]m. 2010D g "">tv \ ^_s x D'' Bum. 2010h[ 23 x>_ 27 k Vk \V_ c>t D\Va \VV um....].x.. gel_ >twd D..V\][ 1962_ \k c. 1967_ \ >Vz]l_ ku u \[ c VV V 13_ ].x.. som kbud 1977 x>_ 1987 k >tw x>_ kv ge A>V. AE >k [D \^ >k [D Vu D D..g. (\# VV\[ V\][) 1972D g V 18D V^ ""V ]Vs x[u wd'' [ EB >Vus>V. [ El[ B ""m ]B V ]Vs x[u wd'' \VuD F>V. 1973_ E x>[ x>v ] _ VV\[ >Vz] >>o_ Vl ku um.

10 1974_ u V \[ >>o_ ku u ge \>m. 1977_ u >tw \[ >>o_.].x u gez k>m [ 30_ D..g. >tw x>_kv >sbuv. m x>_ 1987 k >tw x>_ kv gea>v. 1978_ >tw]_ ""10+2+3'' D _sx \Kz k>m. [l_ ""V _ wd'' mkm. 1980_ DBV > V\ ab x am. D, V\ x[ V[ >sd a >uz ]V ""V\ WkV ]V^'' WBt. 1980_ u 7km \[ >>o_ ku u * D x>_kvv D..g. 1981_ \ml_ ""n>vkm c >t \VV '' um D 15_ ""> >t _wd'' ckvm _ Vkl_ V]BV _ wxd, VVo_ [ >V \ _ wxd >Vm. 1982_ D..g ""k m ]>'' mkv. 1983iV ]lom z V kk>uv g] [ >D Fm VV D..g VD bt[ WB][ x>_ ] m. 1983_ E skvlz k t[vd kwzd ]D x >m. 1984_ D..g. \Vs_ \mk\l_ E u VzD Vm >tv_ Vm >>_ um. ]_ k g \[ >Vz]l_ Vl ku u * D >tw x>_vv D 24D >] D..g. cl >V. kz z km \s V D\ BV 1988 k 7 x>_ 30 k >tw x>_kv >s k>v. k >tw][ x>vkm x>\vkv....].x.s_ 1988_ u * D 1989_ [V >m.

11 V.Bo>V gel_ >twd 1991 h[ \V>]_ u \[ >>o_.].x. ku um h[ 24 [ _s.. Bo>V >tw x>_kv >sbuv. k \V_ >> >tw][ x>vkm x>\vkv. >sbu [ x>[ x>v >tw]_ \m J k>uv c>s_ B]V. 1992_ m \ Vk_ WBD >VD. 1992_ zw> Vm V>uV >V_ zw> ]D mkm. 1994_ \_ t[ m^ \Kz k>. 1995_ Vkm c >t \VV >l_ um \[ >>o_ >V_s B>m. \, 2001_ u 12km \[ >>o_ ku u, \ 15 [ Bo>V Vkm xbv >tw x>\v >sbuv. V[E W kw_ Bo>Vz 3 g ^ E > kw>v_ k x>_kv >sbum _Vm c ]\[D D 21, 2001 _ y>m. >V_ Bo>V >s s {. [ _kd >tw][ A]B x>\v >sbuv. >ul_ V[E kw sv> [ cb ]\[ D 4, 2001_ Bo>Vz kw >B m Fm y>m. >[ z Bo>V 2002 k 21_ g >Vz]l_ Vl ku uv. 2002, \V 2_ Bo>V J[Vkm xbv >tv[ x>\v >sbuv. 2002, \V 23_ Vl_[ [>V ]D >Vm. 2002_ ""kzd _s ]D'' >Vm. geb lue l_ u V x x >m. >tv ]>W _ wd >Vm. >tw][ V ^ > FB.

12 ^ \ud _z _ Al V[ su > FBm V 18_ >_... sbz\v >\lv ]l "" E g['' ] > >_ T V[ \[ >>o_...].x.. >V_sB>m. 2011_ u 14km \[ >>o_...].x.. D ku um. pd >Vz]l_ Vl ku u Bo>V 2011, \ 15 [ V[Vkm xbv >tw x>\v >sbu^v. x>_kv >sbumd 6 k ]z BVtV. k E kwzd ]D, >Voz >D kwzd ]D, k tl,, t[se kwzd ]D, k V_ ^ kwzd ]D, \Vk z k \M kwzd ]D, x]bv[ \V>V] {F]B> 1000 VBV cb] kwzd ]D V[ _k ]^ >uvm B_ > k[. >tw EB_ E^ E B ckv g >Vus>k^ ]E 1916.D.VB, ]BVV BV ]Vs wd 1944 >> BV >tw wd 1946 \.V. EkQVD ]Vs x[uwd 1949 E.[. Vm >tv cwv E V\Vt BVE V\[T_ E (Common weal Party) 1951 D.. \VkK VB 10

13 >] E 1959 VV \ud [..V >t >EBE 1961 ~.k.. D m ]B V 1972 D..V\][ ]Vs x[u wd s > E>^ 1972 VV \^ E 1990 V. V\>V \\E ]Vs x[u wd 1994 k.vv_vt (kv) 11

14 >]]uz [ >tw gebv[ B_ >tw g^ B_ g[ B >svd ].ko[ A ]. V[ A ] V[o ].[ A ]. g> gkv_ ]. gev_ k ]. i z\v E ke ]. pvv ]...V[ ].sivd \V] ]..s.# ].>V c_e ]...V ]. \V[V_ V]BV ].A>V kv ]. V] o ]. >V_ zvv ]..E.V ].E VV ]. i\ VVB E ].D. [V ]. iv (.V) _s. V]\V s ].E.V[ ]. V\ \V[ V ]. E V ].VMB VBV k ].sbv V (.V) ].[kvv_ AV x>_ >uvm k 12

15 >tw x>\ B_ x>\ >svd 1. ]..AVBK 17 D 1920 BV ]._ VV 19 kd D ].. AVB[ 4 D V kd ].. xvt 27 V V kd ].Vo VV (V\ i VV) 5 kd _ ]... V[ _ 1936 g ]. Vo VV g 1936 _ ].. k _ V ]. VV k ge ]..VD ]. {.. V\Vt BV 12. ]... z\ VVt VV 13. ].E. VV ]. z. V\V ]. z. V\V ]. z. V\V ].D. >kd ]. E.[ Vm 19. ]. V (k ab[ (>uvod) 3-10) 20. ]. x. VW] k ge k 31,1976 k 17, ]. D V\][ k ge 22. ].D V\][ 23. ].D V\][ 24. ].V. ab[ (>uvod) 25. ]\]. V V\][ k ge 26. ].x.vw] k ge 27. _s..bo>v D 24, 1987 k 7, (k 7-30) k30, k 30,1991 h[ 24,

16 28. ].x.vw] _s Bo>V 30. ].{.[ _kd 31. _s Bo>V 32. ].x.vw] _s Bo>V 34.].{.[_ kd 35._s Bo>V 36.].{.[_ kd 37.].V wmvt 2017 x>_ >uvm k >tv[ x>\ ].AVBK BV. ]BV >]D >Vm >tw x>_kv >k ].{\# V\Vt BV >] ]BVs_ x>_ Vm >>_ x> z >tw x>_ kvk ]. VV >tv[ x>_ x>\ ]\] V V\][ >tw]_ t VD (>Vm) x>_kv >k D..V\][ h[ 30,1977 x>_ D 24, 1987 k. (10 g ^ 5 \V>^ 25 V^) ]\]. V tzb VD x>_kv >k. (24 V^) >tw]_ t ] x x>_k >s k>k ]. x. VW]. 5 x, 10 k k k k k \ \ \ \ 2011 >]]uz [ >tw g \[D ku u x>\ VVB E / 1952 x>vkm \[D ]B >EB V E.VVVV.V\V. EkxD ^ gkm.>.V..V\V [.VV\[.iV 14

17 1962 3gkm.>.V..V\V. _VB[ D.>kD gkm ].x. E.[. Vm E.. g]>v.. \]Bw[ x.vw] gkm ].x. x.vw].mkv[ Ak.Vs>[ gkm...].x.. D..V\][ x g] gkm...].x.. D..V\][ x g]. VVVD gkm...].x.. D..V\][ V V\][. VVVD.. VB[ gkm ].x.. x.vw] x. >t z\[ gkm...].x...Bo>V V. x>bv gkm ].x.. x.vw]..g. wmk_ V[ gkm...].x.. {. [ _kd.vxm.bo>v gkm ].x.. x.vw] V. gb[ gkm...].x...Bo>V. >V_ gkm...].x...Bo>V {. [ _kd V. wmvt. >V_ k >k \ud m >k B >VD x E m >k. EkxD 6, \ g V >kk V ^ 1955 [.VV \[ 2, D kd 1956 V >kk V. iv V 30 _ g 1961 V >kk V 15

18 . _ 31 \V 14 \V V. V>V] VB[ E.V. g]]b[ 17 \ 12 g ].x.. Ak Vs>[ V Ak. 22 k 14 \V ].x...g. \[ Vs>[ MkV[ 2 D 3 g ].x.. (>uvo >k) Ak. 3 g 3 ].x.. [. ] Vs>[ x g] 6 18 h[.].x...]v VVVD 21 h[ k 1985.].x.. V_ VB[.. VB[ 27 k k 1989.].x.. s.. V \B[ x.>tz\[ 8 k 30 h[ ].x.. s.. mvt g. wmk_ 23 \ \ 2001 ].x.. ] D k] V[ V. Vxm 24 \ k.].x... VD 2006 V. gb[ 19 \ \ 2011 ].x.. s.. mvt.bz\v 27 \ ].x.. >V_ 2012.>V_ ].x.. V^VE BV\[ 16

19 >tw k u ^ VD D k [E_ D, AM> V V 14, 1937 D 21, 1938 [ _ w _D, VD k 27, 1938 V 26, 1939 VV \[D (Banqueting Hall) {\#V E >VD \ 24, 1946 \V 27, 1952 [E_ D, AM> V V \ 3, 1952 D 27, 1956 kv D, {\#V EV; >VD _ 29, 1957 \V 30, 1959 \[ kvd AM> V V _ 2030, 1959 [J \V, c>\d g 31, 1959 k 11, 2010 \[ kvd AM> V V \V \ 15, 2011 A]B \[ kvd, {\# E >VD \ 16, 2011 x>_ \[ kvd AM> V V >tw m 69% m kw^ \VWD >tv B_ kz (SC) - 18% wzl (ST) - 1% td u >V - 20% VtB - 3.5% u >V % 69 % >]]uz [ >tw >tw \k \k ""s>v[ '' m. \k { W> \A gzd. >[ c[ >svd 6 g ^ gzd. kv g xs_, >[ J[_ z] c^ >s szk. >[ c^ \V_ BV >> k]_ x>_ 1950 k >[ c[ z>d 54 gd, ] D 56 gd >m. 1937D g 14D V^, [ AM> V Vl_ c^ \]_ 17

20 \k Bm. > \kl_ \V>D 55 c^ >. ]B EB\A ][ \ \k 1952D g _ 21D V^ x>_ B_ >VBm. >[ >k V.s. B[ gkv. kz [ D..\V kkd, kb m E.. EuD \k >kv >>. 1978D g _ 26 >] \.V.EkQVD \k >kv >> V. k 1986D g V 31D V^ \k D k >Vm [m g VD \k >kv sv. \k >>_ \k cv >>, ]B >>_ gbd md, \k c^ 5 k_ >> [. 1. >V JD 1/12 z] cd, 2. geb^ JD 1/12 z] cd, 3. c^ve \A JD 1/3 z] cd, 4. \VW \[ JD 1/3 z] cd >> [. 5. 1/6 z] c^ gv_ WBt [., BD, sb_,, J k V[ m_ >E>k^ \kl[ m \k cv gv_ WBt k. 1947D g [ sz^ \ud k ol > FD mv x[k \kl_ V k Wkum. mk \[]_ x>[x>v Wku \kl[ x[kkvzd. \k A D..g. gel_ 1986D g \ \V>D 14D V^ \kb >uv y\vd, >tv k l_ Wku m. y\vd z> x[k \k \ud \VWk gb kkd Wku, 1986 D 1_ zb>k[ A>_ ]B D 40 g klm. D 1986D g kd 1 x>_ \Kz k>>v_, [B ]\ \k m. 18

21 * D \k 1989D g ].x.. gel_ * D \kb u mk>uv y\vd W kum. 1991_.].x.. gel[ Vm y\vd m. 1996_ ].x.. * D \k \>uv \V>Vk kl_ WkuBm. m \]B E[ VkzD km. >ub ge \VuD u>v_ DxBuED >V_sB>m. ].x.. gel_ 2010 _ 12_ * D \k \>uv y\vd l_ W kum. 2010, \ 16_ zb >k yv V_ >tw \k \V>Vz A>_ >V. [ D 30, 2010 [ \k >Vz][ B_ zb >kv_ klm. >[ >tw \k \zd l[ EA gbv.d.. \VKy[ [k >tw WBt>m. gv_ 2011_ u ge \Vu>V_ \k ckvzd xbue sm. >tw][ \k Vm \k >k \.V. EkQVD >tw x>_k D..V\][ >tw g > V_ zzv ]B V]] l_ E ]B >\ V V] 2011D g Wk ]BVs_ g]v, VV, \VViV, V, c] >D \ud DxVi* gb 6 \VW_ \k B_ m. g]v \VW]_ \kbvm _ 2007 _ * D \m. \k >k^ >k >svd E.VVVV E Vuk _.. kvtb ]E ^ D. ]Vt E.s. ED\ V ]E.V\] BVBE 19

22 V.. V\V V g.. V\i V s B[ V D.. \VkK E.. Eu V \.V. EkQVD V V ].x >tw wd \k m >k >k^ >svd..k^ V. xmt D.V>D V kVt V D. _V s.. wmvt iJ] \.V.EkQVD kVtV>[ Ak Am\>[ kVtV>[